Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) refers to genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of embryo profiling), and sometimes even of oocytes prior to fertilization. PGD is considered in a similar fashion to prenatal diagnosis. When used to screen for a specific genetic disease, its main advantage is that it avoids selective pregnancy termination as the method makes it highly likely that the baby will be free of the disease under
consideration. PGD thus is an adjunct to assisted reproductive technology, and requires in vitro fertilization (IVF) to obtain oocytes or embryos for evaluation. The term preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is used to denote procedures that do not look for a specific disease but use PGD techniques to identify embryos at risk. The PGD allows studying the DNA of eggs or embryos to select those that carry certain damaging characteristics. It is useful when there are previous chromosomal or genetic disorders in the family and within the context of in vitro fertilization programs.
During a cycle of IVF, Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis PGD Testing may be recommended \ in several scenarios:
- Abnormalities in Chromosome Number
- Recurrent Miscarriage
- Hereditary Cancer
- Genetic Mutations
- Tissue Typing
- PGD Testing
PGD combines the advances medical science has made in genetics with Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). What a blessing – what a miracle. PGD testing takes place after Dr. Morris has successfully retrieved a woman’s eggs and fertilized them in the laboratory via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Three days after fertilization, the resulting embryos are then screened by removing a single cell for testing. Then, based upon the analysis of the cell, a decision can be made as to which embryo is the best for transferring into the woman’s uterus. The hope – a healthy pregnancy is achieved and baby is born.
A single cell’s genetic makeup is analyzed and – based upon the results – parents are able to determine which embryo they desire to have transferred for implantation into the woman’s uterus.
PGD Testing affords hopeful parents-to-be the opportunity to:
Screen out embryos carrying a genetic disease
Predict the risk of a disease
Improve birth rates of healthy babies through IVF
Today – amazingly – parents can choose the sex of their baby through PGD Testing! PGD is a key IVF ancillary procedure that helps today’s modern family planning.